Sana'a (also spelled Sanaa or Sana) is the largest city in Yemen and the center of Sana'a Governorate. The city is not part of the Governorate, but forms the separate administrative district of "Amanat Al-Asemah". Under the Yemeni constitution, Sana'a is the capital of the country, although the seat of the internationally recognized government moved to Aden in the aftermath of the 2014–15 Yemeni coup d'état. Aden was declared as the temporary capital by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi in March 2015.
Following the establishment of the State of Israel, most of the Jewish population migrated to Israel.
Jews have been present in Yemen since the 5th century BCE and form one of the most historic Jewish diasporas. In Sana'a, Jews had initially settled within the enclosed citadel, known as al-Qa?r, near the ruins of the old tower known as Ghumdan Palace, but were evicted from there in the late 6th century by the ruling monarch, and moved to a different section of the city, known as al-Marbaki (also called the Falayhi Quarter). From there, they again uprooted and were made to settle in the section of the city known as al-Quzali, and eventually moved from there and settled in the neighborhood of al-Sa'ilah. In 1679, during the Mawza Exile, they were once again evicted from their place of residence. Upon returning to the city in 1680, they were given a plot of land outside of the city walls, where they built the new Jewish Quarter, al-Q?b? (now Q?? al-?Ulufi), and where they remained until the community's demise in the mid-20th century. After the creation of the political State of Israel in 1948, about 49,000 (of an estimated 51,000) of Yemenite Jews were airlifted to Israel, almost 10,000 of whom were from Sana'a (see the English-language book Jews and Muslims in lower Yemen: a study in protection and restraint, 1918–1949). There was essentially no Jewish population in Sana'a until the Shia insurgency broke out in northern Yemen in 2004. The Houthis directly threatened the Jewish community in 2007, prompting the government of President Saleh to offer them refuge in Sana'a. As of 2010, there were around 700 Jews living in the capital under government protection.