HERZLIYYAH (Heb. הֶרְצְלִיָּה), town in the southern Sharon, Israel, 10½ mi. (17 km.) N. of Tel Aviv, Herzliyyah was first founded as a moshavah in 1924 on land acquired by the *American Zion Commonwealth Corporation (a land purchasing agency organized by the Zionist Organization of America). The settlers, second-generation farmers, members of *Benei Binyamin , soon developed a flourishing agricultural center principally based on citriculture. The discontinuation of citrus exports during World War II brought about the development of other agricultural branches and industrial enterprises. By 1948, Herzliyyah's population was 5,300. After the *War of Independence (1948), the municipal area was greatly enlarged, expanding mainly to the seashore. In 1960, Herzliyyah was accorded city status. In 1969 the city boundaries included two separate urban zones: the older, eastern part, mainly a residential area; the dune-and-sandstone-hill area along the coast, comprising three quarters: a bathing and recreation area on the seashore proper, where some of Israel's largest hotels are located; an industrial area in the south; and a middle-class residential area in the north. Over the years, the physical structure of city changed owing to expansion. In the 21st century, the city can be divided into three main areas: Herzliyyah Pitu'aḥ, an upscale residential area; the industrial area with numerous high-tech firms, well known for its cafés and restaurants; and the eastern belt, including the city center and residential neighborhoods. The city's area runs to 10 sq. mi. (26 sq. km.). It has a number of parks and recreation grounds and the municipality has been developing the city's marina, which already accommodates 800 sailboats. The Herzliyyah Interdisciplinary Center, a private college, is located in the city.
Tel Aviv's proximity was among the factors accelerating its growth, from 16,000 in 1954, and 35,600 in 1968 to 83,300 in 2002, including 7,000 new immigrants, mainly from the former Soviet Union. The city falls within the Tel Aviv conurbation, a factor in regional and countrywide planning. Herzliyyah is named after Theodor *Herzl .
[Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)]
Source: Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.