Field Marshal Paulus surrenders the 6th Army at Stalingrad. 300,000 German troops are killed, wounded or captured.
German Sixth Army surrenders at Stalingrad. (This marks the turning point in the war).
Nazis arrest "White Rose" leaders in Munich.
Second resettlement in Croatia.
American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden in New York to pressure the United States to aid European Jewry.
Disbandment of the ghetto in Krakow.
Deportations from Salonika, Greece and Thrace.
Colonel Gersdorff attemptes to assasinate Hitler.
The first new crematorium in Auschwitz? Birkenau placed into operation.
Stroop arrrives in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Bermuda Conference. Fruitless discussions by U.S. and British delegates on deliverance of Nazi victims.
Warsaw Ghetto uprising begins. Von Sammers is relieved of command of the Nazi garrison.
Stroop orders the Warsaw Ghetto to be set on fire.
The headquarters bunker of the Jewish resistance fighters at Mila 18 in the Warsaw Ghetto is liquidated.
19,153 Jews expelled from Sofia and saved from deportation
Liquidation of the ghetto in Lemberg (Lvov) (20,000 persons).
Revolt and destruction of the ghetto in Czestochowa, Poland.
Four crematoria completed at Aushwitz-Birkenau.
Thirteenth order of the Reich's Civil Laws: Jews within Germany placed under police justice.
German offensive at Kursk fails.
Allies invade Sicily.
Mussolini arrested and Fascist government in Italy falls; Marshal Pietro Badoglio takes over and negotiates with Allies.
First of five organized groups leaves Vilna ghetto to join partisans.
Rome is declared an open city.
Revolt and destruction of the ghetto in Bialystok.
Prisoners of Sonderkommando 1005 made to exhume tens of thousands of bodies at Babi Yar.
Vilna underground uprising fails.
Belgian Jews arrested for deportation to Auschwitz.
Start of German raids against Jews in Nice, France.
Liquidation of ghettos in Minsk and Lida.
Liquidation of the Vilna Ghetto.
Smolensk recaptured by Soviet troops. Liquidation of all ghettos in Belorussia.
Italy declares war on Germany.
Revolt in Sobibor.
U.N. War Crimes Commission is established.
Liquidation of Minsk ghetto.
Dnepropetrovsk liberated: 15 of 80,000 Jews remain.
Implementation of Operation Harvest Festival, which was to liquidate several camps in the Lublin area (including Majdanek, Trawniki and Poniatowa). Liquidation of the Riga Ghetto. Murder of remaining Jews in Majdanek (17,000 victims).
Kiev recaptured by Soviet troops.
Jewish partisans liberate Jews of Borshchev.
Conference in Teheran; meeting of Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
First trial of German war criminals in Charkow (Kharkov), Ukraine.